JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT DELAY: OWNING RESTRUCTURING RATHER THAN BEING RESTRUCTURED – by Prof. Kirk Atkinson

Jamaica is an enigma. On the one hand, as a small island state in the Caribbean Sea, it is the one hundred and sixty eighth smallest state in a world in which scale matters, yet it has global recognition on par with the leading dominant states in the world. When it comes to global recognition, countries, like corporations, are recognized by their logo or branding. The United States for example is branded by the stripes and stars, the Statue of Liberty, its military power, and its cultural and human capital. Great Britain is recognized for its imperial past and the monarchy; France for the romanticism of Paris and its cuisines. Italy is recognized for its architecture, its landscape and the Vatican, and Japan for its remarkable rebuilding after its devastation in the Second World War. Among Caribbean island states, Jamaica is equal in global recognition as the aforementioned countries. Like its Caribbean counterparts, Jamaica boasts pristine white sand beaches, luxurious tourist resorts and frequent visits from royalty, the rich and the famous. One distinction, however, is that Jamaica is the only developing country ranked in the top ten countries visited by Americans in 2007 ahead of China and Spain, according to a Pew survey on global travel. Jamaica’s global recognition is a result of the island’s ingenuity, a Janus quality that brings both positive and negative recognition. On the positive side of the recognition ledger, Jamaican reggae music and the legend behind Bob Marley’s music have given Jamaica a global

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JAMAICA BEFORE AND NOW – Hermes Alan Leigh

West of the Pillars of Hercules before 10,000 B.C. Jamaica and the Caribbean Islands region is where one of the Islands of Atlantis The Lost Continent was located. In the ancient past Jamaica and the Caribbean Islands being one of the Islands of Atlantis, was part of a highly advanced sophisticated civilization, with technology that would even surpass that which we have now. Before 10,000 B.C. Atlantis was an enchanted race of gifted and highly intelligent beings. Many cultures within their recorded history have references to the Great Island Continent of Atlantis where Jamaica and the Caribbean Islands now rest. Plato told the story of Atlantis from certain 200-year-old records of the Greek ruler Solon, who, in turn, heard the story of this Island from the Egyptian priest, in the Temples of Egypt. The Sleeping Prophet Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), stated that the partly drowned remnants of one of the islands that the Atlanteans emigrated to, after the main continent of Atlantis began to suffer, was Jamaica. Cayce made it clear that Atlantis was at once, both the center and the ruler of the ancient world. Sitting in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis had easy access to both the eastern and the western hemispheres. Cayce believed that the Caribbean was once a major center of Atlantean habitation, including the controversial “Bimini Road”, that was found in 1968 near the island of Bimini, an area which Cayce identified as the place where many Atlanteans fled after the first destruction before

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Revisiting Marcus Garvey 1887-1940 by Tarik Daley

The Right Excellent Marcus Mosiah Garvey is one of only seven Jamaican nationals to have earned the distinction of becoming a National Hero. He was also a hero in the hearts and mind of many people globally. Garvey exemplified selflessness in every sense of the word and conveyed through his relentless efforts, his fight to eradicate oppression of all forms toward his race. Garvey’s advocacy won over many admirers and followers who bought into his concept of being systematically liberated economically, politically and socially. This blog highlights Garvey’s quest to empower the Black race by his assemblage of the largest mass movement which ultimately propelled him to the status that he holds today, generations after his passing. Marcus Garvey was born on August 17th, 1887 in St. Ann’s Bay. Born to parents Marcus Garvey Sr. and Sara Jane Richards, Garvey was what we refer to in Jamaica as the last child or the wash belly of 11 children. His father had a career as a stone mason and his mother was a farmer and a domestic helper. Garvey Sr. can be accredited as the one who had the greatest impact on his personality and ambition. It’s the same indomitable spirit that they both shared that Garvey would use later on in his life as he was challenged often externally with his plans. Garvey’s love for reading had much to do with his father setting up a library as home where his curious mind led him to become an avid reader.

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Visas for Students

Visas for Students If you are interested in becoming a full-time student in the United States, you will need to acquire either an M-1 Student Visa or an F-1 Student Visa. To acquire temporary legalization with a student visa you must meet the following criteria: You must be enrolled in an educational program, a vocational program or a language-training program. Your academic institution must be approved by the USCIS. You must be enrolled as a student (full-time) at the academic institution. You must be proficient in the English language or be enrolled in classes leading to fluency You must have enough money to support yourself during the course of study You must maintain a home abroad to show that you have no intention of staying. The F-1 Student Visa enables you to enter America as a full-time student at an accredited university, college, academic high school, elementary school or language training program. You must be enrolled in a course of study that culminates in a degree or certificate. Your school must also be authorized by the United States Federal Government to accept international students. The M-1 Student Visa is for vocational students or students of non-academic programs (other than language courses). Citizenship and the Military: Members and certain veterans of the United States armed forces may be eligible for citizenship through their military service. Qualifying military service refers to participation in the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and certain branches of the National Guard. Those who

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The Legalization Process

The Legalization Process There are several ways to become a legal resident of the United States. The exact procedure to obtain legalization will depend on your location, your background and your residency status. In most cases, before you can obtain a green card (permanent residence) you must obtain a legal status. If you are residing–because of illegal crossing or an expired visa–in the United States as an illegal immigrant, you must obtain legalization through your family (if permanent residents or American citizens), your place of employment, the United States military, through marriage or from an educational endeavor. This will enable you to maintain residence in the United States for a certain period of time. It is crucial to understand that all visas have expiration dates—green cards and citizenship are permanent, not visas. Before your expiration date, you must secure a green card through marriage, the military or a family member, employment or business. To acquire legalization you must engage in or be categorized as one of the following: a family-based immigrant, a member of the United States Armed Forces, a worker or student with exceptional skills, an employment-based worker, or an asylum seeker/refugee. The visas associated with these categories are all temporary; however, they will enable you to live in the country legally and apply for permanent residency in the future. Legalization from Family Members: A number of people become legalized by way of their family members. The following individuals may be eligible to legally live in the United States:

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